Photographs (left to right): Purple Gullinule Shark Valley, Everglades National Park, Florida; Yellow Jacket Wasp, Florida; Osprey, Calusa, Florida


Wampum References

Compiled by Richard D. Hamell


Beauchamp, W. M. 1888. Onondaga Customs. The Journal of American Folklore, Vol. 1, No. 3 (Oct.), pp. 195-203.

Beauchamp, W. M. 1893. Eskimo Traces in New York . Science, Vol. 22, No. 567 (Dec.), pp. 330-331.

Beauchamp, W. M. 1895. An Iroquois Condolence. The Journal of American Folklore, Vol. 8, No. 31 (Oct.), pp. 313-316.

Beauchamp, W. M. 1898. Wampum Belts. Science New Series, Vol. 8, No. 200 (Oct), pp. 596-597.

Beauchamp, William Martin. 1897. Aboriginal Chipped Stone Implements of New York. Albany: University of the State of New York.

Becker, Marshall . 2004. A Penobscot Wampum Belt in the Vatican Museums: A Possible Nineteenth Century Example of Native American diplomacy Vatican City: Monumenti, Musei e Gallerie Pontificie.

Bherer, Harold. 1990 Wampum and Letters Patent: Exploratory Study of Native Entrepreneurship. Halifax, NS: Institute for Research on Public Policy.

Bonaparte, Darren. 2006. Creation & Confederation: The Living History of the Iroquois. Ahkwesasne Mohawk Territory: Wampum Chronicles.

Bradford, William. 1794. Letter Book. Collections of The Massachusetts Historical Society, Ser. 1, Vol. 3, pp. 27-76.

Bradford, William. 1912, History of Plymouth Plantation [1630-1650], Ed. W. C. Ford. Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston.

Bradford, William. 1952. Of Plimoth Plantation. New York: Knopf.

Burggraf, James D. 1938. Some Notes on the Manufacture of Wampum Prior to 1654. American Antiquity, Vol. 4, No. 1 (July), pp. 53-58.

Burggraf, James. 1982. Some Notes on the Manufacture of Wampum Prior to 1654. The Second Coastal Archaeology Reader: 1900 to the Present. Readings in Long Island Archaeology and Ethnohistory Vol. V. Lexington, MA: Suffolk County Archaeological Association.

Bushnell, D. I. 1907. Virginia-From Early Records. American Anthropologist, Vol. 9,  pp. 31-43.

Bushnell, D.I. 1906. The Origin of Wampum. The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain And Ireland ,  36, Pp. 172-7.

Butler, Mary. 1939. Three Archaeological Sites in Somerset County, Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Historical Commission Bulletin, No. 735, Harrisburg.

Cartier, Jacques, 1924. Voyages, Ed. H. P. Biggar. Publications of the Public Archives Of Canada, 11. Ottawa.

Ceci, Lynn. 1982. The First Fiscal Crisis in New York. The Second Coastal Archaeology Reader: 1900 to the Present. Readings in Long Island Archaeology and Ethnohistory Vol. V. Lexington, MA: Suffolk County Archaeological Association.

Ceci, Lynn. 1982. The Value of Wampum among the New York Iroquois: A Case Study in Artifact Analysis. Journal of Anthropological Research 38/1 1982: pp. 97-107.

Ceci, Lynn. 1986. Tracing Wampum's Origins. Proceedings of the 1986 Shell Bead Conference: Selected Papers. Research Records No. 20. Rochester, NY: Museum and Science Center, 1989.

Ceci, Lynn.1990. Native Wampum as a Peripheral Resource in the Seventeenth-Century Word-System. The Pequots in Southern New England, The Fall and Rise of an American Indian Nation. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, pp. 48-63.

Champlain, Samuel De. 1603, 1613. Voyages. Voyages, Ed. Biggar, Vol. 1, pp. 191-469, Vol. 2, pp. 1-236.

Champlain, Samuel De. 1603, 1619. Voyages. Voyages, Ed. Biggar, Vol. 3, pp. 1-230.

Champlain, Samuel De. 1603. Des Sauvages. Voyages, Ed. H. P. Biggar, Vol. 1, pp. 81-189. Champ- Lain Society, Toronto, 1922-1936.

Church, Colonel Benjamin. 1975. Diary of King Philip's War 1675-1676. Tiverton, RI, Lockwood Publications.

Clarke, Noah T. 1931. The Wampum Belt Collection of the New York State Museum. New York State Museum Bulletin 288 Albany: The University of the State of New York, pp. 85-121.

Cole, Fay-Cooper and Thorne Deuel. 1937. Rediscovering Illinois. University Of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Coles, Robert R. 1982. Wampum was More than Money. The Second Coastal Archaeology Reader: 1900 to the Present. Readings in Long Island Archaeology and Ethnohistory, Vol. V. Lexington, MA: Suffolk County Archaeological Association.

de Lotbiniere, Pauline Joly. 1993. Des Wampums et des 'Petits Humains' Recits Historiques sur les Wampums Algonquins. Recherches Amerindiennes au Quebec 23/2-3, pp: 53-68.

Deforest, John W. 1850. History of the Indians Of Connecticut. Michigan: Native American Book Publisher.

Einhorn, Arthur. 1974. Iroquois-Algonquin Wampum Exchange and Preservation in the Twentieth Century. Man in the Northeast, 7, pp. 71-86.

Engberg, Robert M. 1931. Algonkian Sites Of Westmoreland And Fayette Counties, Pennsylvania. Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine, Vol. 14, pp. 143-190.

Fenton, William N. 1989. Return of Eleven Wampum Belts to the Six Nations Iroquois Confederacy on Grand River, Canada. Ethnohistory, Vol. 36, No. 4 (Autumn), pp. 392-410.

Fenton, William. 1998. Wampum, the Magnet that Drew Furs from the Forest. The Great Law and the Longhouse. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Fogelman, Gary L. 1991. Glass Trade Beads of the Northeast, And including Aboriginal Bead Industries: Stone – Bone - Shell - Catlinite – Cannel Coal – Teeth. Pennsylvania: Fogelman Publishing Co.

Fowke, Gerard. 1894. Archaeologic Investigations in the James and Potomac Valleys. Bulletin Of The Bureau Of American Ethnology, 23. Washington.

Gookin, Daniel. 1972. Historical Collections of the Indians In New England. New York: Arno Press, 1972 (Reprint Of The 1792 Ed.)

Griffin, James B. 1943. The Fort Ancient Aspect. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. ,1949, Editor, Archaeology Of The Eastern United States. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Haddon, A. C. 1910. Review: [untitled]. Folklore, Vol. 21, No. 1 (Mar.), pp. 126-127.

Hagedorn, Nancy L. 1988. A Friend to go between Them: The Interpreter as Cultural Broker during Anglo-Iroquois Councils, 1740-70. Ethnohistory, Vol. 35, No. 1 (Winter), pp. 60-80.

Hagerty, Gilbert W. 1985. Wampum, War and Trade Good, West of the Hudson. Interlaken, NY: Heart of the Lakes Pub.

Hale, Horatio. 1897. Four Huron Wampum Records: A Study of Aboriginal American History and Mnemonic Symbols. The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 26, pp. 221-247.

Hamell, George R. 1989. Life’s Immortal Shell: Wampum Among the Iroquois. In Proceedings of the 1986 Shell Bead Conference: Selected Papers. Rochester Museum and Science Center Research Record No. 20, p. 205.

Hamor, Ralph. 1860. A True Discourse Of The Present Estate of Virginia [1615]. Albany.

Hamy, E. T. 1901. Sur Une Miniature De Jacques Le Moyne De Morgues, Representant Une Scene Du Voyage De Laudonniere En Floride (1564). Compte Rendus De L'academie Des Inscriptions Et Belles-Lettres, Ser. 4, Vol. 29, pp. 8-17.

Hayes, Charles F. III. 1989. An Introduction to the Shell and Shell Artifact Collection at the Rochester Museum and Science Center. Proceedings of the 1986 Shell Bead Conference: Selected Papers. Research Records, No. 20. Rochester, NY: Museum and Science Center.

Heath, Dwight B., (ed) 1963. Mourt's Relation: A Journal of The Pilgrims At Plymouth New York City.  Corinth Books.

Herman, Mary W. 1956. Wampum as a Money in Northeastern North America. Ethnohistory, Vol. 3, No. 1 (Winter), pp. 21-33.

Hewitt, J.N.B. 1907. Wampum. Handbook of the American Indians North of Mexico. Bulletin of The Bureau Of American Ethnology 30. DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1907: 904-9.

Ingersoll, Ernest. 1883. Wampum and Its History. The American Naturalist, Vol. 17, No. 5 (May), pp. 467-479.

Jacobs, Wilbur R. 1949. Wampum: The Protocol of Indian Diplomacy. The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., Vol. 6, No. 4 (Oct), pp. 596-604.

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Josselyn, John. 1972. New England's Rarities Discovered. Boston, MA: Historical Society.

Jouvency, J. 1896. De Regione Ac Moribus Canadensium. Jesuit Relations, Ed. R. G. Thwaites, Vol. 1,  pp. 239-297. Burrows, Cleveland, 1896-1901.

Juet, R. 1860. The Third Voyage Of Master Henry Hudson. Henry Hudson, Ed. G. M. Asher, pp. 45-93. Works Issued By The Hakluyt Society, Orig. Ser., Vol. 27. London.

Kent, Barry C. 1970. An Unusual Cache from the Wyoming Valley, Pennsylvania. American Antiquity, Vol. 35, No. 2 (Apr.), pp. 185-193.

Krieger, Alex D. 1946. Culture Complexes and Chronology In Northern Texas. University of Texas Publication, 4640. Austin.

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Lescarbot, Marc. 1907. Histoire De La Nouvelle France [1617], Ed. W. L. Grant. Publications of The Champlain Society, Vols. 1, 7, 11. Toronto, 1907-1914.

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Mann, Barbara A. 1995. The Fire at Onondaga: Wampum as Proto-Writing. Akwesasne Notes, v.1 n.1 (Spring), pp. 40-8.

Martien, Jerry. 1996. Shell Game: A True Account of Beads and Money in North America. San Francisco, CA: Mercury House.

Michelson, G. 1991. Iroquoian Terms for Wampum. International Journal of American Linguistics, 57/1, pp 108-16.

Mictrartius, J. 1628. Letter to A. Smoutius. Aug. 11, 1628. New York State, Ecclesiastical Records, Ed. E. T. Corwin, Vol. 1, pp. 48-73. Albany, 1901-1916; Transl. J. G. Fagg, Rev. J. F. Jameson. Scribner, New York, 1909.

Mills, William C. 1917. Certain Mounds and Village Sites In Ohio. Columbus.

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