Photographs (left to right): Sunset, Albuquerque, New Mexico; Silver Pennies, Rush, New York; Tent Rocks National Monument, New Mexico

Wampum Belt Archive


Creek (Muscogee)


The Charleston Museum, Charleston, South Carolina


Original Size:

11 rows. Length: 125 cm. Inches: 49.2.








Translucent wine red glass bead bead with six white glass diamonds and two outlined white diamonds in center ending with 5 horizontal bars at both ends.

Donated by Mrs John Crawford in ca 1910 made by Hetty McIntosh, daughter of Chief William McIntosh before 1887.

Information below from:

William McIntosh (1775 – April 30, 1825)

Also known as Taskanugi Hatke (White Warrior), was one of the most prominent chiefs of the Creek Nation between the turn of the nineteenth century and the time of Creek removal to Indian Territory. He was a leader of the Lower Towns, the Creek who were adapting European-American ways and tools to incorporate into their culture. He became a planter who owned slaves and also had a ferry business. Earlier American historians attributed McIntosh's achievements and influence to his mixed race Scots/European ancestry. Since the late 20th century, some revisionist historians have contended that his power stemmed more from his Creek upbringing, particularly his mother's prominent Wind Clan in the Creek matrilineal system, and to other aspects of Creek culture.[2] Because McIntosh led a group that negotiated and signed a treaty in 1825 to cede much of remaining Creek lands to the United States in violation of Creek law, for the first time the Council ordered that a Creek be executed for crimes against the Nation. It sentenced him and other signatories to death. McIntosh was executed by Menewa and a large force of Law Menders in late April 1825; two other signatories were executed and one was shot but escaped. Menewa signed a treaty in 1826 that was similar, but that the Council had agreed to and that provided more benefits to the Creek. McIntosh's descendants removed with the Creek people to Indian Territory. His two sons served as Confederate officers during the American Civil War. Three of his daughters: Rebecca, Delilah and Catherine, moved to East Texas with their husbands, developing plantations there. Rebecca McIntosh Hawkins Hagerty married again after her first husband died young, and by 1860 was the wealthiest woman in Texas, owning three plantations with a total of 12,800 acres, and 120 slaves.


Stolle, Nickolaus. 2016. Talking Beads: The history of wampum as a value and knowledge bearer, from its very first beginnings until today. Hamburg, Germany. ISSN 1437-7837