Photographs (left to right): Letchworth State Park, New York; Hamlin Beach State Park, New York; Cucumber Falls, Pennsylvania

Wampum Belt Archive


Nanfan Broken Treaties Wampum Belt

Deanna' Adelaide
(day was dee yaw ‘kay)
(Broken Treaty)


April 04, 2020 Hamell


Beaded Length: 18 inches. Width: 6.5. Length Mw/fringe: 32.9 inches


Columns: 119. Rows: 13. Total: 1,585 beads




Warps: Deer leather. Wefts: Artificial sinew.


The Nanfan Treaty (1701) penned by the Go. John Nanfan of New York requested all land occupied (claimed) by
the French in the Ohio territory and southern Ontario (Canada) be given to the King and by the Haudenosaunee
territory covering 400x800 miles, be given to the King.

The Nanfan proposal never became a formal treaty and was not approved by the Five Nations of the Haudenosaunee.
King William III never signed it. Equally important is the absence of wampum belts exchange, necessary to
‘seal’ all the transactions were absent.

The belt images merge two treaties into one statement and the belt shall be known by the name:
“Deanna' Adelaide” Broken Treaties.

The Two Row Belt, suggested to be the oldest treaty belt (1613). outlined the LAW by which the Dutch and

the Haudenosaunee will live in harmony and will not interfere in the others self-governance and cultural
practices which is represented by the two parallel river/roads.

The second belt incorporated in the Nanfan Belt is the Stanwix Treaty which granted the land expansion to the British

governor. Both treaties have been violated through beneficial reinterpretations by the foreign powers.

The violations of this treaties are indicated by the 6 pairs of Stanwix Treaty diagonals (supports of the Longhouse) have been

separated from their base and offset - representing the foreign government land grab while the Haudenosaunee are shown embracing the
Two Row Treaty. The foreign government is no longer viewing the Two Row as two separate pathways, but only as
one and doesn't recognize it shown in their body posture, their feet are pointing westward, reinforcing the

government policy of eminent domain. The Haudenosaunee have their feet 'holding fast' to their territory.